Academic and Social Engagement: The Effect of Flipped Classroom on Physical Fitness by Using Teaching Game for Understanding Strategy
Keywords:Flipped Classroom, cognitive and social engagement, physical fitness
AbstractThe research aimed to analyze the implementation of flipped classrooms with the Teaching Game of Understanding Strategy in Sports Teaching to strengthen students’ Academic and social engagement in improving Physical Fitness in playing volleyball. This study used experimental-quantitative research with survey methods. The sample of this study is fifth-grade students of Fifth-grade of Elementary School of Sungai Sariak 11 Padang Pariaman as many as 40 people. Students’ academic and social engagement data were collected by using questionnaires with a 5-point Likert scale and physical fitness data were collected by using Indonesian Physical Fitness Test. The data analysis used multiple linear regression tests. Research findings reported that the implementation of the Teaching Game of Understanding to strengthen students’ Academic and social engagement in improving students’ Physical Fitness in playing volleyball in the line of socialization; personality and self-control have significant relation with students’ physical fitness and Academic engagement also showed significant relation with students’ physical fitness covered to PUC, TIR, EVN and LMR group. Sports teachers can utilize the Teaching Game of Understanding model to volleyball learners improve their physical fitness.
Abeysekera, L., & Dawson, P. (2015). Motivation and cognitive load in the flipped classroom: definition, rationale and a call for research. Higher Education Research and Development, 34(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2014.934336
Aminah, H., Shadiqin, A., & Kahri, M. (2019). Effect of physical fitness exercises in 2012 and New Indonesian gymnastics exercise (SRIBU) exercises on physical fitness level of female students. Proceedings of the 1st South Borneo International Conference on Sport Science and Education (SBICSSE 2019), Banjarmasin, Indonesia, 73–75. https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.200219.020
Balwant, P. T. (2018). The meaning of student engagement and disengagement in the classroom context: Lessons from organisational behaviour. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 42(3), 389–401. https://doi.org/10.1080/0309877X.2017.1281887
Barak, M., Watted, A., & Haick, H. (2016). Motivation to learn in massive open online courses: Examining aspects of language and social engagement. Computers & Education, 94, 49–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.11.010
Bariham, I. (2022). Senior high school teachers’ and students’ perception about the integration of online learning and its impact on their application of technology in teaching and learning of social studies in northern region, Ghana. Social Education Research, 161–174. https://doi.org/10.37256/ser.3120221268
Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom: Reach every student in every class every day. International society for technology in education.
Boekaerts, M. (2016). Engagement as an inherent aspect of the learning process. Learning and Instruction, 43, 76–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2016.02.001
Burić, I., & Moe, A. (2020). What makes teachers enthusiastic: The interplay of positive affect, self-efficacy and job satisfaction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 89, 103008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2019.103008
Chang, J.-J., Lin, W.-S., & Chen, H.-R. (2019). How attention level and cognitive style affect learning in a MOOC environment? Based on the perspective of brainwave analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 100, 209–217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.08.016
Creswell W, J. (2014). Research design, qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches (4th ed.). SAGE Publication, Inc.
Fan, Y. (2023). The Dynamics among basic psychological needs, engagement, and learning outcomes in online learning: An exploratory study using latent variable modeling. Wayne State University.
Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School Engagement: Potential of the Concept, State of the Evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 59–109. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543074001059
Giráldez, V. A., Fang, W. X., Tang, Y., Lu, W., Hu, T., & Cui, L. (2023). The influence of small private online course flipped classroom teaching on physical education students' learning motivation from perspective of self-determination theory. Psychological Variables, Physical Activity and Physical Education, 94. https://doi.org/10.3389/978-2-8325-2387-2
Goldin, G. A., Epstein, Y. M., Schorr, R. Y., & Warner, L. B. (2011). Beliefs and engagement structures: Behind the affective dimension of mathematical learning. ZDM - International Journal on Mathematics Education, 43(4), 547–560. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858-011-0348-z
Gross, D., Pietri, E. S., Anderson, G., Moyano-Camihort, K., & Graham, M. J. (2015). Increased preclass preparation underlies student outcome improvement in the flipped classroom. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 14(4), ar36. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.15-02-0040
Hart, S. R., Stewart, K., & Jimerson, S. R. (2011). The student engagement in schools questionnaire (SESQ) and the teacher engagement report form-new (TERF-N): Examining the preliminary evidence. Contemporary School Psychology: Formerly" The California School Psychologist", 15(1), 67–79. https://doi.org/10.1037/t42908-000
Hawlitschek, A., & Joeckel, S. (2017). Increasing the effectiveness of digital educational games: The effects of a learning instruction on students’ learning, motivation and cognitive load. Computers in Human Behavior, 72, 79–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.01.040
Heidari, E., Mehrvarz, M., Marzooghi, R., & Stoyanov, S. (2021). The role of digital informal learning in the relationship between students’ digital competence and academic engagement during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 37(4), 1154–1166. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12553
Howey, K., & Hewett, S. (2015). Clinical Preparation-Literature Review.
Kahu, E. R. (2013a). Framing student engagement in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 38(5), 758–773. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2011.598505
Kahu, E. R. (2013b). Studies in Higher Education Framing student engagement in higher education. 5079. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2011.598505
Kim, H. J., Hong, A. J., & Song, H.-D. (2019). The roles of academic engagement and digital readiness in students’ achievements in university e-learning environments. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 16(1), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-019-0152-3
Koivisto, J., & Hamari, J. (2019). The rise of motivational information systems: A review of gamification research. International Journal of Information Management, 45(July 2018), 191–210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2018.10.013
Konold, T., Cornell, D., Jia, Y., & Malone, M. (2018). School climate, student engagement, and academic achievement: A latent variable, multilevel multi-informant examination. Aera Open, 4(4), https://doi.org/10.1177/2332858418815661
Larson, R. W. (2000). Toward a psychology of positive youth development. American Psychologist, 55(1), 170. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.170
Lee, Y. H., & Cho, H. (2021). The roles of different types of passion in emotional exhaustion and turnover intention among athletic coaches. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 16(3), 465–476. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747954120976955
Moorhouse, B. L., & Wong, K. M. (2022). Blending asynchronous and synchronous digital technologies and instructional approaches to facilitate remote learning. Journal of Computers in Education, 9(1), 51–70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40692-021-00195-8
Murphy, C., Scantlebury, K., & Milne, C. (2015). Using Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development to propose and test an explanatory model for conceptualising coteaching in pre-service science teacher education. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 43(4), 281–295. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359866X.2015.1060291
O’Flaherty, J., & Phillips, C. (2015). The use of flipped classrooms in higher education: A scoping review. Internet and Higher Education, 25(February 2015), 85–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2015.02.002. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2015.02.002
Olakanmi, E. E. (2017). The effects of a flipped classroom model of instruction on students’ performance and attitudes towards chemistry. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 26, 127–137. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-016-9657-x
Østerlie, O. (2018). Can flipped learning enhance adolescents’ motivation in physical education? An intervention study. https://doi.org/10.23865/jased.v2.916
Peñalver, J., Salanova, M., Martínez, I. M., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2019). Happy-productive groups: How positive affect links to performance through social resources. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 14(3), 377–392. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2017.1402076
Perkmann, M., Salandra, R., Tartari, V., McKelvey, M., & Hughes, A. (2021). Academic engagement: A review of the literature 2011-2019. Research Policy, 50(1), 104114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2020.104114
Pirrioni, S. (2018). Promoting apprentices’ professional development: Integrating formal and informal learning, hrm and learning goal orientation in promoting apprentices’ competencies. Nottingham Trent University (United Kingdom).
Reflianto, F. A., & Makki, I. (2021). Influence of flipped classroom and social engagement on vocational students’ speaking performance. International Conference on Industrial Revolution for Polytechnic Education, 3(3).
Reflianto, (2021). Setyosari, P., Kuswandi, D., & Widiati, U. 2021. Reading comprehension skills: The effect of online flipped classroom learning and student engagement during the COVID-19 pandemic. European Journal of Educational Research, 10(4), 1613–1624. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.10.4.1613
Reyna, J. (2015). Active learning and the flipped classroom. Training & Development, 42(5), 30.
Reynolds, R., & Chiu, M. M. (2016). Reducing digital divide effects through student engagement in coordinated game design, online resource use, and social computing activities in school. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 67(8), 1822–1835. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.23504
Salmela-Aro, K. (2017). Dark and bright sides of thriving–school burnout and engagement in the Finnish context. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14(3), 337–349. https://doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2016.1207517
Scagnoli, N. (7 C.E.). Things you should know about microlectures. EDUCAUSE Review.
Siedentop, D., Hastie, P., & Van der Mars, H. (2019). Complete guide to sport education. Human Kinetics.
Skinner, K. L., Hyde, S. J., McPherson, K., & Simpson, M. D. (2016). Improving students’ interpersonal skills through experiential small group learning. Journal of Learning Design, 9(1), 21–36. https://doi.org/10.5204/jld.v9i1.232
Vallerand, R. J., Paquet, Y., Philippe, F. L., & Charest, J. (2010). On the role of passion for work in burnout: A process model. Journal of Personality, 78(1), 289–312. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2009.00616.x
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in Society: The Development of higher psychological processes (London, UK). Harvard University Press.
Wang, M.-T., Degol, J. L., & Henry, D. A. (2019). An integrative development-in-sociocultural-context model for children’s engagement in learning. American Psychologist, 74(9), 1086. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000522
Wang, M.-T., Fredricks, J., Ye, F., Hofkens, T., & Linn, J. S. (2019). Conceptualization and assessment of adolescents’ engagement and disengagement in school: A Multidimensional School Engagement Scale. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 35(4), 592. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000431
Zahoor, A. (2018). Teacher proactivity influencing student satisfaction and loyalty role of job crafting and work engagement. Vikalpa, 43(3), 125–138. https://doi.org/10.1177/0256090918785046
Zakaria, N. (2017). Emergent patterns of switching behaviors and intercultural communication styles of global virtual teams during distributed decision making. Journal of International Management, 23(4), 350–366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intman.2016.09.002
Zhang, W., Liu, L., Tang, F., & Dong, X. (2018). Social engagement and sense of loneliness and hopelessness: Findings from the PINE study. Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, 4, 2333721418778189. https://doi.org/10.1177/2333721418778189
Zhu, M., Basdogan, M., & Bonk, C. J. (2020). A case study of the design practices and judgments of novice instructional designers. Contemporary Educational Technology, 12(2). https://doi.org/10.30935/cedtech/7829
How to Cite
Authors who publish with the Indonesian Journal of Instructional Media and Model agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-SA 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.