Innovation Snack Crackers Sorghum, Challenge and Characterization Product: A review


  • Evita Riviani Achmadi Food scientist and technologist




Background : Snack crackers can be modified into healthy snacks with the concept of gluten-free crackers for coeliac sufferers. The best design innovation for producing gluten-free snack crackers is the use of sorghum flour as an alternative to wheat. Sorghum is recommended to be safe for coeliac sufferers because it is included in the Panicoidea sub family, which is the same family as corn and millet grains. The phenolic components contained in sorghum include 3-deoxyanthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavones and flavanones. These components are active components that act as antioxidants, anticarcinogens and prevent cardiovascular disease. Along with these functional components, the use of sorghum flour in crackers means they can be promoted as gluten-free snacks that provide health benefits.

Scope and approach: This review explain about how to develop snack crackers that contain sorghum flour as the main ingredient and the challenging in terms of formulation and processing methods. Key to the success of cracker innovation with sorghum flour is establishing which cracker characteristics are accepted by consumers, critical points at the processing stage and characteristics of sorghum flour that support the desired end product.

Key findings and conclusion: Development in formulations, ingredients and process conditions is a challenge for snack cracker innovation with sorghum flour as an alternative. Presence of some antinutritional factors in sorghum such as tannins, phytates, trypsin inhibitors, and protein crosslinker can be maintain by pretreatment sorghum before its prosessed as sorghum flour. The best treatment is fermentation followed by the combination of soaking, germination, and nixtamalization. Formulation and process condition can be adjust based on viscoelasticity and consistency of snack krekers dough. It is also important to consider incorporation sorghum flour and others gluten free flour to get optimum dough consistency and viscoelasticity. Increasing the viscoelasticity of the dough can be achieved by adding functional ingredients such as protein isolate, fibre, hydrocolloid and emulsifier to improve the baking quality of gluten-free snack crackers. The incorporation of optimization hydrocolloids and other functional ingredients requires further research focused on identifying the right functional ingredients to effectively replace the function of wheat gluten. Development of gluten-free crackers is expected to be able to overcome the limitations of technology, nutritional quality and sensory properties on an ongoing basis.

Author Biography

Evita Riviani Achmadi, Food scientist and technologist

2020 - 2021 R&I Manager BCP Role Raw and Pack, Danone Specialized Nutrition Indonesia

2019 - 2018 R&I Packaging Manager Danone Specialized Nutrition Indonesia

2017 - 2018 Junior Manager R&D IFFCO Group UAE

2015 - 2016 Master Degree Food Science and Technology Universitas Gadjah Mada 

2014 - 2015 Head Product Development and Quality Control PT Choice Plus Makmur 

2011 - 2014 Senior Staff Specialist Analyst product Development and Quality Control PT Sriboga Flour Mill 



Abdualrahman, M.A.Y., Ma, H., Yagoub, A.E.A., Zhou, C., Ali, A.O., dan Yang, W. 2017. Nutritional value, protein quality and antioxidant activity of Sudanese sorghum-based kissra bread fortified with bambara groundnut (Voandzeia subterranea) seed flour. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences.

Adedara, O.A. dan Taylor, J.R.N.,. 2020. Roles of protein, starch and sugar in the texture of sorghum biscuits. LWT - Food Science and Technology

Afify, AE-MMR, El-Beltagi, H.S., Abd El-Salam S.M., Omran, A.A. 2012. Protein Solubility, Digestibility and Fractionation after Germination of Sorghum Varieties. PLoS ONE 7(2): e31154

Afrin, S. dan Sidhu, S. 2021. In vitro study to evaluate antiinflammatory properties of sorghum extract supplemented bread. Future Foods.

Anton, A.A. dan Artfield, S.D. 2008. Hydrocolloids in gluten-free breads: A review. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. February 2008; 59(1): 11-23

Cabrera-Ramírez, A.H., Luzardo-Ocampo, I., Ramírez-Jiménez, A.K., MoralesSánchez, E., Campos-Vega, R., Gaytán-Martínez, M. 2020. Effect of the nixtamalization process on the protein bioaccessibility of white and red sorghum flours during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Food Research International

Ciaccia,C., Maiuri, L., Caporasob, N., Buccia, C., Giudiced, L.D., Massardod, D.R., Pontierid, P., Fonzoe, N.D., Beanf, S.R., Ioergerf, B., dan Londeib, M. 2007. Celiac disease: In vitro and in vivo safety and palatability of wheat-free sorghum food products. Clinical Nutrition (2007) 26, 799–805

Davidson, I. 2019. Biscuit, Cookie and Cracker Production Process: Production and Packaging Equipment. Academic Press, United Kingdom

de Lacerda de Oliveira, Lí., Theodoro de Oliveira, G., Rodrigues de Alencar,E., Vieira Queiroz, V.A., Flávio de Alencar Figueiredo, Lú.. 2021. Physical, chemical, and antioxidant analysis of sorghum grain and flour from five hybrids to determine the drivers of liking of gluten-free sorghum breads. LWT - Food Science and Technology

de Mesa-Stonestreet,N.J., Alavi, S dan Bean, S.R. 2010. Sorghum Proteins: The Concentration, Isolation, Modification, and Food Applications of Kafirins. Journal of Food Science. 75(5) R90-R104

Dicka, M., Limbergera, C., Thysb, R.C.S., Riosa, A. and Flôresa, S.H. 2020. Mucilage and cladode flour from cactus (Opuntia monacantha) as alternative ingredients in gluten-free crackers. Food Chemistry 314 (2020) 126178

Duodu, K.G., Taylora, J.R.N., Beltonb, P.S., dan Hamakerc, B.R. 2003. Factors affecting sorghum protein digestibility. Journal of Cereal Science 38 (2003) 117–131

Eltayeb, L.F.E.F, Mohamed, M.A.S dan Fageer, A.S.M. 2017. Effect of Soaking on Nutritional Value of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L). International Journal of Science and Research, 6 (11)

Filipcev, B., Simurina, O., Bodroza-Solarov, M. dan Brkljaca, J. 2013. Dough rheological properties in relation to cracker-making performance of organically grown spelt cultivars. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 48, 2356–2362

Garzón, A.G., Van de Velde,F., dan Drago, S.R. 2020. Gastrointestinal and colonic in vitro bioaccessibility of γ-aminobutiric acid (GABA) and phenolic compounds from novel fermented sorghum food. LWT - Food Science and Technology 130 (2020) 109664

Hager, A.S and Arendt, E.K. 2013. Influence of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), xanthan gum and their combination on loaf specific volume, crumb hardness and crumb grain characteristics of gluten-free breads based on rice, maize, teff and buckwheat. Food Hydrocolloids 32 (2013) 195-203

Han, J., Janz, J.A.M and Gerlat, M. 2010. Development of gluten-free cracker snacks using pulse flours and fractions. Food Research International 43 (2010) 627–633

Hou, G.G., Li, J. dan Chen, Z. 2013. Whole Grain Saltine Crackers: Formulation, Processing, and Quality Improvements. Cereal Food World. July–August 2013, 58:4

Jnawali, P., Kumar, V., dan Tanwar, B. 2016. Celiac disease: Overview and considerations for development of gluten-free foods. Food Science and Human Wellness 5 (2016) 169–176

Mariotti, M., Pagani, M.A., dan Lucisano, M. 2013. The role of buckwheat and HPMC on the breadmaking properties of some commercial gluten-free bread mixtures. Food Hydrocolloids 30 (2013) 393-400

Marston, K., Khouryieh, H., dan Aramouni, F. 2016. Effect of heat treatment of sorghum flour on the functional properties of gluten-free bread and cake. LWT - Food Science and Technology 65 (2016) 637-644

Mehtab, W., Sachdev, V., Singh, A., Agarwal, S., Singh, N., Malik, R., Malhotra, A., Ahuja, V., dan Makharia, G. 2021. Gluten content in labeled and unlabeled gluten-free food products used by patients with celiac disease. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Monthe, O.S., Grosmaire, L., Nguimbou, R.M., Dahdouh, L., Ricci, J., Tran, T. dan Ndjouenkeu, R. 2018. Rheological and textural properties of gluten-free doughs and breads based on fermented cassava, sweet potato and sorghum mixed flours. LWT - Food Science and Technology

Mtelisi, D.N., Xu, F. dan Zhao, R. 2020. The efficacy of sorghum flour addition on dough rheological properties and bread quality: A short review. Grain & Oil Science and Technology

Myhrstad, M.C.W, Slydahl, M., Hellmann, M., Garnweidner-Holme, L., Lundin, K.E.A, Henriksen, C. dan Telle-Hansen, V.H. 2021. Nutritional quality and costs of gluten-free products: a case-control study of food products on the Norwegian marked. Food & Nutrition Research 2021, 65: 6121

Nammakuna, N., Barringer, S.A. dan Ratanatriwong, P. 2015. The effects of protein isolates and hydrocolloids complexes on dough rheology, physicochemical properties and qualities of gluten-free crackers. Food Science & Nutrition 2016; 4(2): 143–155

Naseer, B., Naik, H.R., Hussain, S.Z., Zargar, I., Beenish, Bhat, T.A., dan Nazir, N. 2021. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose and baking conditions on in-vitro starch digestibility and physico-textural characteristics of low glycemic index gluten-free rice cookies. LWT - Food Science and Technology 141 (2021) 110885

Nkhata, S.G., Ayua, E., Kamau, E.H dan Shingiro, J-B. 2018. Fermentation and germination improve nutritional value of cereals and legumes through activation of endogenous enzymes. Food Science Nutrition 2018; 00:1–13

Luzardo-Ocampo, I, Ramírez-Jiménez, A.K., Cabrera-Ramirez, A.H., Rodríguez-Castillo,N., Campos-Vega, R., Loarca-Piña, G., Gaytán-

Martínez, M. 2019. Impact of cooking and nixtamalization on the bioaccessibility and antioxidant capacity of phenolic compounds from two sorghum varieties. Food Chemistry.

Oom, A., Petterssona, A., Taylorb, J.R.N., dan Stadinga, M. 2008. Rheological properties of kafirin and zein prolamins. Journal of Cereal Science 47 (2008) 109–116

Pressini, D., Pin, M., dan Sensidoni, A. 2011. Rheology and breadmaking performance of rice-buckwheat batters supplemented with hydrocolloids. Food Hydrocolloids 25 (2011) 340-349

Rashwan, A.K., Yones, H.A., Karim, N., Taha, E.M., dan Chen, W. 2021. Potential processing technologies for developing sorghum-based food products: An update and comprehensive review. Trends in Food Science & Technology 110 (2021) 168–182

Reddy, P.A., Pranusha, G., Rao, G.L., dan Reddy, A.N. 2019. Development and Analysis of Sorghum Crackers. International Journal of Science and Research Science and Technology. March-April-2019, 6 (2): 26-31

Rose, D.J., Williams, E., Mkandawire1, N.L., Weller, C.L., dan Jackson, D.S. 2013. Use of whole grain and refined flour from tannin and non-tannin sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) varieties in frybread. Food Science and Technology International 20(5) 333–339

Wang, Y., Trani, A., Knaapila, A., Hietala, S., Coda, R., Katina, K., Maina, N.H. 2020. The effect of in situ produced dextran on flavour and texture perception of wholegrain sorghum bread, Food Hydrocolloids.

Xu, J., Zhang, Y., Wang, W. dan Li, Y. 2020. Advanced properties of gluten-free cookies, cakes, and crackers: A review.Trends in Food Science & Technology 103 (2020) 200–213

Wesley, S.D., Andre, B.H.M., dan Clerici, M.T.P.S. 2021. Gluten-free rice & bean biscuit: characterization of a new food product. Heliyon 7 (2021) e05956




How to Cite

Achmadi, E. R. (2022). Innovation Snack Crackers Sorghum, Challenge and Characterization Product: A review. Journal of Food and Agricultural Product, 2(1), 1–14.